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A Historical Background of Indian Aggression in Nepal

15 Jun

Nepal is sandwiched between two emerging superpowers India and China. The specific geopolitical character of Nepal and age old social, religious and cultural relation, the open border, passage to the sea through India only and the special treaty of security could not let Nepal escape from the dominance of India in political and economic front. Hence, during the past years from 1950, Nepal’s political issues never drew the attention of international community other than India. Even our northern neighbour China did not bother to give its attention in Nepal’s political development in the period. India enjoyed the sole monopoly in engaging itself in every political development of Nepal. Whenever India felt that Nepal is trying to escape from its security umbrella, it punished Nepal by imposing economic blockade and other sort of restrictions on it. The glaring example of which is the Indian economic blockade of 1989 when Nepal bought some arms from China without consulting India.

 Nepal and India are very close neighbours having unique ties governed by religious, cultural and economic inter dependence as well as open border stretched to 1,751 KMs. The issue of open border is as old as the historical relation of these two countries. Although no formal agreements before 1950 maintained that the border between the two countries should remain open, both countries never introduced any provision of travel permits for the people of either country moving across the border.

 The open border is always operating at the pleasure of Indian interest. India has time and again used the open border issue to threaten Nepal whenever it feels that Nepal is not responding to its interest. There are incidents of major transit points closed for long duration by India without consulting Nepal as a punishment for dealing with other countries without India’s prior knowledge and consent. However, after the birth of Maoist insurgency in Nepal, and especially in the past few years, India is also feeling the heat of negative implication of the left-wing and anti-Indian coordination in both countries that is linked to its internal security concern. So, it is the time for not only Nepal, but also India to rethink its strategic policy about the open border in the changing context of regional security as well as cross border undesirable activities.

 Being a small country, Nepal is suffering more from India in the negative consequences of the unregulated movement of population across the open border. In reality, Nepal has become very poor victim of the negative implication of the open border between the two countries. It is impossible for the security forces of Nepal to guard every inch of the 1,751 KMs long border to control illegal activities. There are severe social, political as well as economic implications of the unregulated transaction of illegal activities across the border. Such incidents can’t be regulated unless India shows a strong commitment to help Nepal. There is a need of India’s direct involvement in regulating such incidents.

 Based on the 1950 treaty and letters of exchange, no country is in a position to unilaterally introduce such travel provisions restricting free movement of people across the border. The issue of regulation was never discussed seriously in the past as neither of the governments felt necessary for the Treaty of Peace and Friendship 1950. Political leaders were enjoying the benefit of uninterrupted movement of Nepalese citizen to India for employment and other opportunities whereas India was also enjoying the easy flow of Indian goods and labourers into Nepalese markets. However, the open border and subsequent free movement of people across the border has brought various social, economic and political problems in recent times.

The Maoists also demanded through their Forty Point Demands presented to the then Deuba Government in February 1996, before the peoples war. The demand For the provision of the control of entire Nepal India open border, ban of cars with Indian number plates to ply through the Nepalese roads, closure of the Gorkha Recruitment Centre, making the provision of work permits for the foreigners in Nepal and end of the precedence of foreign technicians over Nepalese technicians at the local jobs and ban of Hindi video cinema, films, videocassettes, magazines, and all other vulgar materials coming from the Indian markets through the unregulated open border (CPN-M 2001) are now feeling more valuable and necessory.

 India is always interested to Nepal’s rich water resources with estimated capacity of 83,000 MWs of power generation, is well known in South Asia. Water is one of the major natural resources that could be utilised for the nation’s economic development. In theory, water and water-generated energy commodities could be exported to the huge Indian market in the south. However, there is no single water resource as a joint undertaking that can be claimed as a success story in the past 50 years of water resources development project in Nepal (Chintan 2001). India’s bargaining on water resources sharing with Nepal and its desire for fishing in the troubled water of Nepalese politics is also influenced by its ever increasing demand of water for its large population.

 It is obvious that India has never considered Nepal as an equal partner in sharing the huge surplus water resources in Nepal that can be of immense help in fulfilling the unmet demand among huge and starving Indian population. Other experts view that India has an attitude of exploiting the rich resource base of Nepal without returning equal benefit to Nepal. The water dispute between these two countries started as early as 1950s when the Koshi and Gandaki Hydropower projects were started. The treaties on water resources between Nepal and India have always been coloured with political opposition. The treaties caused serious uproar among the Nepalese political circle.  Prime Minister B P Koirala was blamed for selling those rivers to India and the issue would be raised in every election in democratic Nepal even after four decades.

Then another most controversial Integrated Treaty on the Development of the Mahakali River (ITDMR) held in 1996 during the time of Nepali Congress Government, which brought economic, social and political consequences in all sectors of society in Nepal. This treaty became major issue of political battle among the ruling and opposition parties in the streets as well as in the parliament. The opposition communist parties organised nationwide protest blaming Nepali Congress once again selling Mahakali River to India.

Those opposing the Mahakali agreement with India argued that the agreement should be ratified by the parliament riding on the article 126 of the 1990 Constitution which stipulates that any agreement

on sharing of country’s natural resources needs ratification of the parliament by two-third majority. If such agreement causes long term impact to the nation, it has to be ratified by a two-third majority of joint seating of both the houses of parliament (Constitution of Nepal 1990). The government claimed that the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was an understanding between the countries and did not require ratification. The opposition parties and civil society groups dragged the government to the Supreme Court. The apex court ruled that the MoU on Mahakali River was, indeed, an agreement and not merely an understanding.

 The four decade long experience of sharing water resources with India shows that Nepal has been a great looser even in terms of narrow economic benefit through irrigation, flood control, electricity, not to mention the disastrous social and environmental cost (Chintan 2001). The discussion on water resources sharing issues has been dominated by political emotions rather than practical research and study (Ajay Dixit 2004). Every water resources development projects involving India raises the eyebrow of Nepalese opposition political parties (including CPN-M) and is viewed as an attempt to surrender.

 There is a strong argument on India’s opportunist intention of exploiting Nepal’s political crisis situation and weak/illegitimate/unaccountable government to sign major water resource treaties to its benefit. Various natural resources and foreign experts have raised their voices in these issues time and again with citing the timing of the signing of those treaties.

 
53 टिप्पणीहरु

Posted by on जुन 15, 2009 in Analysis, BLOG

 

53 responses to “A Historical Background of Indian Aggression in Nepal

  1. SuReNdRa सिंह

    जुन 15, 2009 at 6:54 बिहान

    The open border is always operating at the pleasure of Indian interest. India has time and again used the open border issue to threaten Nepal whenever it feels that Nepal is not responding to its interest .
    The four decade long experience of sharing water resources with India shows that Nepal has been a great looser even in terms of narrow economic benefit through irrigation, flood control, electricity, not to mention the disastrous social and environmental cost .
    Now it is the time against opportunist intention and aggression of India. We must be Unite.
    No Need India.

     
  2. Vir Gorkhali

    जुन 15, 2009 at 10:18 बिहान

    नेपाल अहिले बुझ्नै नसकिने नियतिभित्र फसेको छ। यही सेरोफेरोमा परचक्रीका सूचना संवाहकहरू अनेक भेषमा नेपालविरुद्ध प्रतिरणनीति बनाउन विदेशीको मिलेमतोमा व्यस्त देखिन्छन। गौतम बुद्धको शान्तिमाथि आदेशचक्रहरू चलिरहेका छन्। नेपालीको साझा भविष्यमाथि गम्भीर प्रश्नचिन्ह खडा भएका छन्। आज मुलुकमा त्यस्तै विदेशी शक्तिकेन्द्रहरूको जयजयकार भएको छ। हिजोको गन्धर्वलाई आजको मिडियाले बदलिदियो। नेपाल एकीकरणपश्चात् त्यतिबेलाकेा सशक्त आमसञ्चारको रूपमा गन्धर्व र तिनका सारंगीका धुनमा नेपाली घर झुपडीमा धेरै कालसम्म गुञ्जिरहे “वान पटुकी बालाराम (युवक), भीर खुकुरी जया (सिपाही), परचक्री हाम्रो घर क्यान टिठयाइ रहया”। आज बालारामको पटुका पनि छैन, जयाको खुकुरी पनि छैन।

     
  3. sagar pundit

    जुन 16, 2009 at 6:39 बिहान

    In case of serious crime, the police of both the countries shall have
    the right to enter the territory of the other country. In case of
    specific types of criminals, the police of one country shall not have
    the right to enter the territory of another country even if required
    permission has been already taken from the magistrate of the country
    concerned.
    -‘टनकपुर नाकावाट फिर्ता भएका भारतीय सुरक्षाकर्मी बनवासा हुंदै गड्डाचौकी नाका भएर राती नै व्रहमदेव आए ।’ गाडीमा हतियार सहित आएका सुरक्षाकर्मीलाई ब्यापारीले रातभर घेरावन्दीमा हालेको अध्यक्ष परमानन्द जोशीले बताए – ‘मौन रहंदा भारतीय ज्यादती बढेको हो ।’ हतियार सहित भारतीय सुरक्षाकर्मी विगतमा नेपालको गाउंमा पसेर सर्वसाधारणलाई त्रसित वनाउंदै आएको उनको भनाइ थियो ।

     
  4. अन्ना कुकु

    जुन 16, 2009 at 9:57 बिहान

    हामी आपसमा लडी रहेको छौ । एक आपसमा झगडा, बन्द हडताल हाम्रो नियती भएको छ । कमसेकम अव त व्युंझ नेपाली हो, नेपाल बन्द -बन्द गरौ, भारतीय दादागिरीको – बिरोध गरौ । सवैले एकै स्वरमा भनों – भारतीय बिस्तारबाद – मुर्दाबाद।

     
  5. SUDHALAL MAHATO

    जुन 17, 2009 at 2:33 बिहान

    अपने मे मरैत-कटैत देशवासी , देश बॅंटल छोटछोट राज्यमे
    कखनो आपसी अनबन तऽ कखनो, अपर्नअपन राज्यक सीमा बढ़ाबऽमे
    ताहु सऽ दुःखद तऽ ई बात छल, हमसब रहल हुं विलासिता के निद्रामे
    अवसरवादी विदेशी फलान्वित भेल, हमसब बन्धल हुं पराधीनताक बन्धनमे
    सब विकासक द्वार बन्द भेल अपन, लागल रहल हुं आनक सेवामे
    शोषणक अन्त करक मोन बनल जखन, सदी लागल लोकतंत्र पाबऽमे
    आगां समय लगाबैत रहल हुं, नविनतम गणतंत्र बचाबऽमे
    जहिया विकास पहुंचत पश्चिमक बराबरीमे ।।

     
  6. राज कोहली

    जुन 21, 2009 at 9:10 बिहान

    खेतको आलीमा टेक्दै सभासद्सगै सिमा स्तम्भ नियाल्दा मलाई अचानक किशोरावस्थाको संझना आयो । मुलपानीमा रहेको आफ्नो खेतमा छिमेकीले थोरैमात्र पनि आली ताछेकेा थाहा पाउँदा मेरो् बा त्यो ताछिएको भाग बराबरको माटो आलीमा फेरी टास्न मलाई अराउनु हुन्थ्यो । अर्को पटक छिमेकीले ताच्छदा फेरीपनि त्यसै गर्न लगाउनु हुन्थ्यो । दिक्क लागेर त्यति बेला मैल्ये बा लाई सोधेकेा थिए ‘ उनले त अलिकती न ताछेको छ छोड्दिनुस् न , यहि हिसावले उसले बाचुन्जेल ताछेपनि त हाम्रो यो् ठुलो खेतको ३ हातभन्दा बढी त के जाला र ?। ‘

    खेतको आलीमा उभिनु भएका बा मुसुक्क हास्नु भयो र भन्नु भयो – ‘ यो त मैल्ये सधियारको प्रवृतीलाई रोक्न खोजेकेा मात्र हुँ । यसरी छाडदै जाने हो भने तेरो सन्ततीको पालासम्म केही पनि रहदैन । किनकी आली मिच्नेको नातीले पनि त तेरो सन्तालको पालमा आली नमिच्ला भन्ने के छ र । तर हरेक वर्ष जति गरेपनि सधियारले आली ताछ्ने क्रम रोकेन । अन्तत बा ले धेरै दुख गरेर इटा र सिमेन्ट किन्नु भयो । अनी त्यसकै पक्की आली बनाउनु भयो । बल्ल आली ताछिने क्रम रोकियो ।

     
  7. Malaysia Travel Guide

    जुन 23, 2009 at 5:07 बिहान

    I think your site was so great and it is really awesome..Of course it really impress me a lot..

    Good job dude and i hope you can keep it up..

    Good blogging !!

     
  8. catarina

    जुन 25, 2009 at 7:39 बिहान

    Nepal has not been able to maintain its status of an independent country in diplomatic, economic and political fields yet.

     
  9. zero Point

    जुन 29, 2009 at 4:45 बिहान

    यसरि नै यिनीहरुको खुराफाती चरित्र विस्तारै नेपाली जनताका सामु उदाङ्गो हुंदै गएको छ र जुन दिन जनता यसको प्रतिकारमा उत्रनेछन्, आफ्नो राष्ट्रियता मासेको एक एक हिसाव खोज्नेछन् त्यस दिनमात्र यिनीहरुको चेत खुल्नेछ, नेपाली जनता कति शक्तिशाली रहेछन् भनेर वुझ्नेछन् ।

     
  10. Nepali Mundre

    जुन 30, 2009 at 8:12 बिहान

    This only not a cause of Indian Aggression.There are many examples and cause of Indian land encroachment in Nepal.
    But Poor nepalese cann’t do anything against It. They react only in the paper or road strike for some days . It’s not a solution .

     
  11. krishna Budha magar

    जुलाई 1, 2009 at 9:00 बिहान

    k garne aba janata le pani …. simana bata Indian le Khedne, Jungle ma gayera basda pani Police le khedne.
    Aba ta aashraya line thaun pani bhayena, aafnai desma sharanarthi bhayera basnu pareko chha.

     
  12. Online Master

    जुलाई 4, 2009 at 1:03 बेलुका

    There are many ways of Indian Aggrations in Nepal.These are only the examples. Now, it’s time to met at a point of Nationalism for the Neplese people living around the world. We must make it a global Issue from everybody’s side and then we can compelled India to back encoarching Nepal.

     
  13. wax mw

    जुलाई 4, 2009 at 6:13 बेलुका

    It’s a very serious Issue. Why Neplese people being Quite at this point?

     
  14. clubpenguin

    जुलाई 5, 2009 at 9:42 बेलुका

    It’s really a true.

     
  15. who is नेपाली

    जुलाई 9, 2009 at 7:28 बिहान

    भारतले जहिलेपनि सीमा मिचेको मिच्यै छ नेपालीहरू २ ४ दिन उफ्रन्छन् चुप लाग्छन् भन्ने उसलाइ परिसक्यो हामि किन केही गर्न सक्दैनों ? अवत केहि गरों न । के हामीसंग राष्ट्रियता भन्ने चिजै सस्तो भएको हो र ?

     
  16. who is नेपाली

    जुलाई 10, 2009 at 2:43 बिहान

    This is really and Its always continues . Go back India .
    People don’t like to strikers !

     
  17. Eve !

    जुलाई 10, 2009 at 8:18 बिहान

    Today, I get a reality of India’s intention.

     
  18. some one

    जुलाई 11, 2009 at 12:25 बेलुका

    the best article of Bivas.

     
  19. Hw geazy

    जुलाई 12, 2009 at 8:11 बेलुका

    ok as your choice, but we r doing good for you.

     
  20. bigbrother

    जुलाई 13, 2009 at 1:18 बिहान

    It’s my right, Nepali people, you all are doing over for us,it’s no good for you and your country. We are big brother.

     
  21. mikeymike

    जुलाई 13, 2009 at 2:19 बेलुका

    I’d keep reading it. I just not read it i’d promised to fight against it.

     
  22. Mithun

    अगस्ट 11, 2009 at 9:31 बेलुका

    Hey bro, Though I am an Indian I can understand your emotions and your longing for absolute sovereignity…. However, some things that you may not have known is that an ordinary indian looks at a Nepali as a brother or one of his own… I can tell yu, having lived in the southern tip of Indian peninsula, I have known ten times more nepalese than say a Bengali or an Assamese or a Gujarathi or even Punjabi… Nepalese are all over India and Indians never differentiate between a Nepali and an Indian and actually Nepalese are well respected in India. This is a reflection of a great cultural and traditional as well as political relationship we share.. Border issues exist between every country in the world. In india it even exists between states.. These are minor botches in an otherwise great relationship the countries share.. Infact, the erstwhile rulers of trvancore, the kingdom at the very bottom tip of the country, has had a centuries of relationship with Nepal’s kings.. these are facts we cant ignore … And I m pretty sure economically Nepal has gained more than India due to the arrangement and for the record.. India’s interest in Nepal, strategically speaking, apart from the cultural relationship, is that It is a buffer zone and strategic point-of-no-influence for china… Given the aggressive and hegemonistic and nasty attitude of China, which has no regard for any human rights and no interest in anybody’s, but, its own economic growth. India I can assure is the better devil and If not for the relationship with India nepal would have fallen into the ill hands of the CHinese and would pretty much have wound up like Burma.. so lets try and improve the relationship bw the countries and dont just end it… Dont thow the baby out with the bath water.. lets look forward for a better and mutual relationship…

     
  23. NABS

    अगस्ट 24, 2009 at 1:21 बेलुका

    So Solide Articles, How many comments?

     
  24. bikash thapa

    अगस्ट 30, 2009 at 10:12 बिहान

    ya’its right .India is playing with us and interferring in our every internal affairs,so it should be stopped by restriction of entry in open border place.

     
  25. Bill Bartmann

    सेप्टेम्बर 6, 2009 at 4:58 बिहान

    Hey good stuff…keep up the good work!🙂

     
  26. work at home

    सेप्टेम्बर 7, 2009 at 12:28 बेलुका

    I’m so glad I found this site…Keep up the good work

     
  27. Bill Bartmann

    सेप्टेम्बर 7, 2009 at 1:44 बेलुका

    This site rocks!

     
  28. Bill Bartmann

    सेप्टेम्बर 14, 2009 at 6:14 बिहान

    Excellent site, keep up the good work. I read a lot of blogs on a daily basis and for the most part, people lack substance but, I just wanted to make a quick comment to say I’m glad I found your blog. Thanks,

    A definite great read…

    -Bill-Bartmann

     
  29. Credit Repair

    सेप्टेम्बर 14, 2009 at 10:08 बिहान

    Excellent site, keep up the good work

     
  30. Bill Bartmann

    सेप्टेम्बर 17, 2009 at 2:26 बिहान

    Cool site, love the info. I do a lot of research online on a daily basis and for the most part, people lack substance but, I just wanted to make a quick comment to say I’m glad I found your blog. Thanks,

    A definite great read…:)

    -Bill-Bartmann

     
  31. Bill Bartmann

    सेप्टेम्बर 22, 2009 at 6:25 बिहान

    I don’t know If I said it already but …This blog rocks! I gotta say, that I read a lot of blogs on a daily basis and for the most part, people lack substance but, I just wanted to make a quick comment to say I’m glad I found your blog. Thanks,🙂

    A definite great read..

    -Bill-Bartmann

     
  32. Dr. Carver

    सेप्टेम्बर 24, 2009 at 10:36 बिहान

    what a great site and informative posts, I will add a backlink and bookmark your site. Keep up the good work!

     
  33. Online Stock Trading

    सेप्टेम्बर 27, 2009 at 12:31 बेलुका

    Super site….where’s the blog roll?

     
  34. vigrx

    अक्टोबर 26, 2009 at 12:38 बिहान

    Generally I do not post on blogs, but I would like to say that this post really forced me to do so! really nice post.

     
  35. fruxupt

    अक्टोबर 31, 2009 at 5:57 बेलुका

    I could agree in 100%.
    He’s the best part if this.

    cheers,
    ______________
    fruxupt

     
  36. grablegen

    नोभेम्बर 4, 2009 at 10:34 बिहान

    I could agree in 100%.
    He’s the first portion if this.

    cheers,
    ______________
    grablegen

     
  37. CroroDareSomi

    नोभेम्बर 15, 2009 at 9:48 बिहान

    Hey there everyone i was just introduceing myself here im a first time visitor who hopes to become a daily reader!

     
  38. rulet sistum

    डिसेम्बर 27, 2009 at 12:29 बिहान

    I cannot believe this all !

     
  39. robort

    डिसेम्बर 27, 2009 at 5:50 बिहान

    Good article, Great idea, thanks for this tip!

     
  40. itatateds

    जनवरी 4, 2010 at 3:56 बेलुका

    Thanx for the article!

     
  41. laxmiacharya

    जनवरी 5, 2010 at 3:37 बिहान

    नेपाल र भारतकाबीच विद्यमान सीमा विवादको स्थलगत रुपमा अध्ययन गरी प्रतिवेदन तयार पार्न गठित संविधान सभाको एउटा समितिको टोलीले सुस्तादेखि कञ्चनपुरसम्म भारतले सीमा मिचेकै हो भन्ने निश्कर्ष निकालेको छ। त्यो समितिमा सत्तारुढ कांग्रेस, एमाले र मालेका आठ सभासदहरु सदस्य छन्।

    http://www.mysansar.com/archives/2010/01/id/8289#more-8289

     
  42. D sangpang rai

    जनवरी 5, 2010 at 3:41 बिहान

    संविधान सभाको एउटा समितिको बैठकमा सभासदहरुले दिनदिनै सीमा मिचिँदा सेना के हेरिरहेको भन्दै प्रधानसेनापति रुक्माङ्गद कटवालसित प्रश्‍न राख्‍दा उनले भनेका थिए- अहिले नेपालमा सैनिक सरकार छैन। त्यसैले सेना आफै खुकुरी लिएर उत्रने हैन, सरकारले आदेश दिएपछि बल्ल काम गर्छ।
    http://www.mysansar.com/archives/2009/02/id/4155

     
  43. Nahem pope

    जनवरी 31, 2010 at 8:56 बिहान

    I’m closely studying Nepalese peaceful rebel against India. I think its very miserable and nude character of India.

     
  44. Innor dog

    फ्रेवुअरी 1, 2010 at 4:33 बेलुका

    When the Ex-Dictator Gyanendra became unable to pay 10 B Indian rupee against import of Petroleum, the Indian govt was forced to accept the 12-point alliance between Maoists and parliamentary forces. Nepalies mut hit hard on the Indian political economy in Nepal. Don’t forget the desperation of Indian businessmen of Kolkata during the 19-day … See Moregeneral strike in 2006. Hitting hard on the Indian economic interest will also give a signal to the Indian landlords of UP and Bihar who have opened a front against the revolution in Nepal.

     
  45. Twin Master

    फ्रेवुअरी 2, 2010 at 9:39 बिहान

    Generally I do not post on blogs, but I would like to say that this post really forced me to do so, Excellent post! Go ahead Nepalese Nationalism.

     
  46. muktimarga

    अप्रील 1, 2010 at 6:08 बेलुका

    thank you

     
  47. avi

    अक्टोबर 10, 2010 at 9:47 बेलुका

    However, the open border and subsequent free movement of people across the border has brought various social, economic and political problems in recent times.

    so ur heading is wrong… earlier it benefited now problem, so get ur govt. to pass laws etc, get the maoist govt. (ur favorite)to do that why make a hue cry and call india aggressor. if u think that in past anything was wrong u don’t prove it was by india, it was ur failure.
    in fact ur article does not convince at all that india is aggressor rather at last u write that without any considerable proof. may be u r chinese funded! u r harming ur people more. and if there is:
    “ban of cars with Indian number plates to ply through the Nepalese roads, closure of the Gorkha Recruitment Centre, making the provision of work permits for the foreigners in Nepal and end of the precedence of foreign technicians over Nepalese technicians at the local jobs and ban of Hindi video cinema, films, videocassettes, magazines, and all other vulgar materials coming from the Indian markets through the unregulated open border (CPN-M 2001) are now feeling more valuable and necessory.” many people there will be unhappy. these make sense, tourism, etc
    Moreover if a river passes to another country u can’t simply block and keep all the water. do u understand?

     
  48. avi

    अक्टोबर 10, 2010 at 9:53 बेलुका

    there r two ways to get support in ur locality
    1. do some work there, help people, etc
    2. criticise neighbour and get people (illiterates) emotional and pander to prejudices

    u r a loser, communism has failed all over the world. get a life!

     
  49. shreeram

    मार्च 29, 2011 at 1:58 बिहान

    India doing intervention in Nepal from Every side, but poor Nepalese are being quite.
    Whyyyyyyyy ??????

     
  50. Facebook User

    अप्रील 13, 2011 at 4:39 बिहान

    The open border is always operating at the pleasure of Indian interest. India has time and again used the open border issue to threaten Nepal whenever it feels that Nepal is not responding to its interest.

    This is the main cause of Indian Intervention in Nepal.

     

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